Despite socialism's best efforts, ethnic identity remained a salient feature in Central and Eastern Europe. Not only did ethno-nationalism help to bring about the fall of the socialist regimes in this region, but it also characterised much of the post-socialist politics. Nation-Building and Minority Politics examines the issue of minority politics in post-socialist states within this dual structure. In particular, it offers an in-depth analysis of post-restoration politics in Estonia and Latvia, covering four issues. First, it looks at the historical context of the current group relations. Second, the study explores the domestic nature of minority politics in Estonia and Latvia by looking at domestic politics and policies. Third, it examines the role of the Russian Federation as an 'external national homeland' through illustrating developments within Russian foreign policy. Finally, the book analyses the role of three significant European organisations, namely the OSCE, EU and the Council of Europe as agents of 'conditionality'. Overall, this study combines old and new theoretical approaches to nation-building and minority politics to exhibit the changing nature of the relationship between majority, minority, external national homeland, and international organisations in today's Europe.